There are two vaccines against typhoid fever. One vaccine contains killed Salmonella typhi bacteria. The other contains a live but weakened strain of the Salmonella bacteria that causes typhoid fever. Vaccination is recommended for travelers to parts of the world where the disease is common, people in close contact with carriers of the disease, and laboratory workers who work with Salmonella typhi bacteria.
Typhoid fever is a life-threatening illness caused by the bacterium Salmonella typhi. In the United States, about 400 cases of typhoid fever occur each year, and 75 percent of these are acquired while traveling internationally. Typhoid fever is still common in the developing world, where it affects about 21.5 million people each year.
There are two main typhoid fever prevention strategies:
- Getting vaccinated against typhoid fever
- Avoiding risky foods and drinks.
Types of Typhoid Vaccine
There are two types of typhoid vaccines. One vaccine contains killed Salmonella typhi bacteria. This vaccine is administered through a shot. The other vaccine contains a live but weakened strain of the Salmonella bacteria that causes typhoid fever. This typhoid vaccine is taken by mouth.
Routine vaccination against typhoid fever is not recommended in the United States, but typhoid vaccine is recommended for:
- Travelers to parts of the world where the disease is common
- People in close contact with a typhoid carrier
- Laboratory workers who work with Salmonella typhi bacteria.
The typhoid vaccine shot schedule varies based on the type of vaccine.
Inactivated Typhoid Vaccine (Shot) Schedule
For this typhoid vaccine, one dose provides protection. It should be given at least two weeks before travel to allow the vaccine time to work. A booster dose is needed every two years for people who remain at risk.
This typhoid vaccine should not be given to children younger than 2 years of age.